Parkes EM. Accuracy of predictions of survival in later stages of cancer. BMJ1972;2:29-31.

Evans C, McCarthy M. Prognostic uncertainty in terminal care: can the Karnofsky index help? Lancet 1985;1:1204-1206.

Heyse-Moore LH, Johnson-Bell VE. Can doctors accurately predict the life expectancy of patients with terminal cancer? Palliat Med 1987;1:165-166.

Forster LE, Lynn J. Predicting life span for applicants to inpatient hospice. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:2540-2543.

Maltoni M, Nanni O, Derni S, et al. Clinical prediction of survival is more accurate than the Karnofsky performance status in estimating life span of terminally ill cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 1994;6:764-766.

Christakis NA, Lamont EB. Extent and determinants of error in doctors’ prognoses in terminally ill patients: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2000;320:469-473.

Janisch L, Mick R, Schilsky RL, et al. Prognostic factors for survival in patients treated in phase I clinical trials. Cancer 1994;74:1965-1973.

Mackillop WJ, Quirt CF. Measuring the accuracy of prognostic judgements in oncology. J Clin Epidemiol 1997;50:21-29.

Zubrod GC, Schneiderman M, Frei E, et al. Appraisal of methods for the study of chemotherapy in man: comparative therapeutic trial of nitrogen and mustard and triethylene thiophosphoramide. J Chron Dis 1960;11:7-33.

Maltoni M, Pirovano M, Scarpi E, et al. Prediction of survival or patients terminally ill with cancer. Cancer 1995;75: 2613-2622.

Christakis NA. Timing of referral of terminally ill patients to an outpatient hospice. J Gen Intern Med 1994;9:314-320.

Reuben DB, Mor V, Hiris J. Clinical symptoms and length of survival in patients with terminal cancer. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:1586-1591.

Coates A, Porzsolt F, Osoba D. Quality of life in oncology practice: prognostic value of EORTC QLQ-C30 scores in patients with advanced malignancy. Eur J Cancer1997;33: 1025-1030.

Allard P, Dionne A, Potvin D. Factors associated with length of survival among 1081 terminally ill cancer patients. J Palliat Care 1995;11:20-24.

Rosenthal MA, Gebski VJ, Kefford RF, et al. Prediction of life-expectancy in hospice patients: identification of novel prognostic factors. Palliat Med 1993;7:199-204.

Loprinzi CL, Laurie JA, Wieand S, et al. Prospective evaluation of prognostic variables from patient-completed questionnaires. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:601-607.

Yates JW, Chalmer B, McKegney P. Evaluation of patients with advanced cancer using the Karnofsky performance status. Cancer 1980;45:2220-2224.

Mor V, Laliberte L, Morris JN, et al. The Karnofsky performance status scale. Cancer1984;53:2002-2007.

Hyde L, Wolf J, McCracken S, et al. Natural course of inoperable lung cancer. Chest1973;64:309-312.

McCusker J. The terminal period of cancer: definition and descriptive epidemiology.J Chron Dis 1984;37:377-385.

Shimozuma K, Sonoo H, Ichihara K, et al. The prognostic value of quality-of-life scores: preliminary results of an analysis of patients with breast cancer. Surg Today 2000;30:255-261.

Pirovano M, Maltoni M, Nanni O, et al. A new palliative prognostic score: a first step for the staging of terminally ill cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage1999;17:231-239.

Morita T, Tsundoa J, Inoue S, et al. Validity of the palliative performance scale from a survival perspective. J Pain Symptom Manage 1999;18:2-3.

Llobera J, Esteva M, Rifa J, et al. Terminal cancer: duration and prediction of survival time. Eur J Cancer 2000;36:2036-2043.

Feinstein AR. Symptoms as an index of biological behavior and prognosis in human cancer. Nature 1966;209:241-245.

Feinstein AR. Clinical judgement. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1967.

Vigano A, Dorgan M, Buckingham J, et al. Survival prediction in terminal cancer patients: a systematic review of the medical literature. Palliat Med 2000;14:363-374.

Hardy JR, Turner R, Saunders M, et al. Prediction of survival in a hospital-based continuing care unit. Eur J Cancer 1994;30A:284-288.

Morita T, Tsundoa J, Inoue S, et al. The Palliative Prognostic Index: a scoring system for survival prediction of terminally ill cancer patients. Support Care Cancer1999;7:128-133.

Tamburini M, Brunelli C, Rosso S, et al. Prognostic value of quality of life scores in terminal cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage 1996;11:32-41.

Maltoni M, Nanni O, Pirovano M, et al. Successful validation of the Palliative Prognostic Score in terminally ill cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage1999;17:240-247.

Lamont EB, Christakis NA. Prognostic disclosure to cancer patients near the end of life. Ann Intern Med 2001;134:1096.

Degner LF, Kristjanson LJ, Bowman D, et al. Information needs and decisional preferences in women with breast cancer. JAMA. 1997;277:1485-1492.

Davison BJ, Degner LF, Morgan TR. Information and decision-making preferences of men with prostate cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1995;22:1401-1408.

Blanchard CG, Labrecque MS, Ruckdeschel JC, Blanchard EB. Information and decision-making preferences of hospitalized adult cancer patients. Soc Sci Med.1988;27:1139-1145.

Wenrich MD, Curtis JR, Shannon SE, et al. Communicating with dying patients within the spectrum of medical care for terminal diagnosis to death. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:868-874.

Parker PA, Baile WF, de Moor C, et al. Breaking bad news about cancer: patient’s preferences for communication. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:2049-2056.

Kutner JS, Steiner JF, Corbett KK, Jahnigen DW, Barton P. Information needs in terminal illness. Soc Sci Med. 1999;48:1341-1352.

Ptacek JT, Eberhardt TL. Breaking bad news: a review of the literature. JAMA.1996;276:496-502.

Buckman R. How to Break Bad News – A Guide for Health Care Professionals. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1992.

Von Gunten CF, Ferris FD, Emanuel LL. Ensuring competency in end-of-life care: communication and relational skills. JAMA. 2000;284:3051-3057.

Fischer GS, Tulsky JA, Arnold RM. Communicating a poor prognosis. In: Portenoy RK, Bruera E, eds. Topics in Palliative Care. Vol 4. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2000.

Rabow MW, McPhee SJ. Beyond breaking bad news: how to help patients who suffer. West J Med. 1999;171:260-263.



Fast Fact and Concept # 124: The Palliative Prognostic Score (PaP) (Link to HTML) (Link to PDF)
Fast Fact and Concept #125: The Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) (Link to HTML) (Link to PDF)


The Americans for Better Care of the Dying (ABCD) is a policy-oriented organization that is working to ensure that all Americans can count on good end-of-life care. (Link)

Designed for Medical College of Virginia third-year medical students, this Web site is a rich resource for any physician who cares for patients near the end of life.(Link)

This is the Web site for the Education for Physicians in End-of-Life Care (EPEC) project, which contains materials (eg, teaching modules, handouts, slides) that promote physician education in care at the end of life. (Link)

The End-of-Life/Palliative Education Resource Center (EPERC) Web site contains a comprehensive catalogue of peer-reviewed training materials. (Link)

This Web site describes a group from Washington University,St Louis, and its current research in prognostication in cancer and contains a link to an interactive prognostic tool for clinicians called the “prognostigram.” (Link)


Translate »
%d bloggers like this: