Resources

References
Donner B, et al. Direct conversion from oral morphine to transdermal fentanyl. Pain, 1996. 64:527-534.

Porter J, Jick H. Addiction rare in patients treated with narcotics. N Engl J Med, 1980. 302:123.

Foley KM. The “decriminalization” of cancer pain. IN: Advances in pain research and therapy, vol 11: Drug treatment of cancer pain in a drug oriented society. Hill CS , Fields WS (eds), New York, Raven Press 1989.

Perry S. Heidrich. Management of pain during debridement: A survey of US burn units. Pain, 1982. 13:267.

Robins LN, David DH, Nurco DN. How permanent was Vietnam drug addiction? Am J Public Health, 1974. 64:38.

Inturrisi CE, Umans JG. Meperidine biotransformation and central nervous system toxicity in animals and humans. . IN Foley KM, Inturrissi CE (eds): Advances in pain research and therapy, vol 8: Opioid analgesics in the management of clinical pain, p 143. New York , Raven Press, 1986.

Simopoulos TT, et al. Use of meperidine in patient-controlled analgesia and the development of normeperidine toxic reactions. Archives of Surgery, 2002. 137:84-88.

Bruera E, Brenneis C, Michaud M, et al. Use of the subcutaneous route for the administration of narcotics in patients with cancer pain. Cancer, 1988. 62:407-411.

Storey P. Subcutaneous infusion for control of cancer symptoms. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1990. 5:33-41.

Levy, MH. Pharmacologic treatment of cancer pain. New Engl J Med, 1996. 335(15):1124-32.

Fast Facts – Pain
Clinical Guidelines
Clinical practice guidelines for the sustained use of sedatives and analgesics in the critically ill adult. (Link)
Patient Information
MedlinePlus. Pain (Link)
NINDS Chronic Pain Information Page (Link)
National Cancer Institute. Understanding Cancer Pain. (Link)
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