American Thoracic Society. Dyspnea. Mechanisms, assessment, and management: a consensus statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(1):321-40.

Dyspnea. Mechanisms, assessment, and management: a consensus statement. American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(1):321-40.

Reuben DB, Mor V. Dyspnea in terminally ill cancer patients. Chest. 1986;89(2):234-6.

Wilcock A, Crosby V, Clarke D, Corcoran R, Tattersfield A. Reading numbers aloud: a measure of the limiting effect of breathlessness in patients with cancer. Thorax. 1999;54(12):1099-103.

Taskar V, Clayton N, Atkins M, Shaheen Z, Stone P, Woodcock A. Breath-holding time in normal subjects, snorers, and sleep apnea patients. Chest. 1995;107(4):959-62.

Bredin M, Corner J, Krishnasamy M, Plant H, Bailey C, A’Hern R. Multicentre randomized controlled trial of nursing intervention for breathlessness in patients with lung cancer. Bmj. 1999;318(7188):901-4.

Jennings AL, Davies AN, Higgins JP, Gibbs JS, Broadley KE. A systematic review of the use of opioids in the management of Dyspnea. Thorax. 2002;57(11):939-44.

Abernethy AP, Currow DC, Frith P, Fazekas BS, McHugh A, Bui C. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial of sustained release morphine for the management of refractory dyspnoea. Bmj. 2003;327(7414):523-8.

Cohen MH, Anderson AJ, Krasnow SH, et al. Continuous intravenous infusion of morphine for severe dyspnea. South Med J. 1991;84(2):229-34.

Chandler S. Nebulized opioids to treat dyspnea. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 1999;16(1):418-22.

Tanaka K, Shima Y, Kakinuma R, et al. Effect of nebulized morphine in cancer patients with dyspnea: a pilot study. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1999;29(12):600-3.

Sarhill N, Walsh D, Khawam E, Tropiano P, Stahley MK. Nebulized hydromorphone for dyspnea in hospice care of advanced cancer. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2000;17(6):389-91.

Coyne PJ, Viswanathan R, Smith TJ. Nebulized fentanyl citrate improves patients’ perception of breathing, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation in dyspnea. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002;23(2):157-60.

Shimoyama N, Shimoyama M. Nebulized furosemide as a novel treatment for dyspnea in terminal cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002;23(1):73-6.

Rousseau PC. Nonpain symptom management in terminal care. Clin Geriatrics Med 1996; 12: 313-327

Enck RE. The medical care of the terminally ill patients. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University press, 1994

Dudgeon DJ, Rosenthal S: Management of dyspnea and cough in patients with cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1996; 10: 157-171

Bruera E, Macmillan K, Pither J et al. The effects of morphine on dyspnea of terminal cancer patients. J pain and Symptom management 1990; 5:341-344

Weil JV, McCullogh RE, Kline JS et al. Diminished ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia after morphine in normal man. N Engl J Med 1975.

Portenoy RK, Thaler HT, Kornblith AB, Lepore JM, Friedlander-Klar H, Kiyasu E, Sobel K, Coyle N, Kemeny N, Norton L, et al. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale: an instrument for the evaluation of symptom prevalence, characteristics and distress. Eur J Cancer. 1994;30A(9):1326-36.

Institute of Medicine. Approaching Death: Improving Care at the End of Life (1997)

Ganong WF. Review of medical physiology. 19th ed. Norwalk, Conn. : Appleton & Lange, 1999.

Gift AG. Psychologic and physiologic aspects of acute dyspnea in asthmatics. Nurs Res. 1991;40(4):196-9.

Dales RE, Spitzer WO, Schechter MT, Suissa S. The influence of psychological status on respiratory symptom reporting. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989;139(6):1459-63.

Bruera E, Schmitz B, Pither J, Neumann CM, Hanson J. The frequency and correlates of dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000;19(5):357-62.

Kawakami Y, Kobayashi S, Yamamoto M, Akiyama Y, Nishimura M. [Relation between dyspnea and personality in patients with pulmonary emphysema and healthy subjects]. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1992;30(4):561-6.

Chetta A, Gerra G, Foresi A, et al. Personality profiles and breathlessness perception in outpatients with different gradings of asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;157(1):116-22.

Weiss SC, Emanuel LL, Fairclough DL, Emanuel DJ. Understanding the experience of pain in terminally ill patients. Lancet 2001; 357: 1311-15.

Campbell EJM, Howell JBL: The sensation of dyspnea. BMJ 2:868, 1963

Periyakoil VS, Skultety K, Sheikh J. Panic, anxiety, and chronic dyspnea. J Palliat Med. 2005 Apr;8(2):453-9. ( Link to HTML) (Link to PDF)

American College of Chest Physicians. Pulmonary and Critical Care Update. Lesson 5, Volume 16—Evaluating and Ameliorating Dyspnea by Michael S. Stulbarg, MD; and Virginia Carrieri-Kohlman, RN, DNSc (Link)

American College of Chest Physicians. Pulmonary and Critical Care Update. Practical Pearls from the GOLD Guidelines on COPD by Juan Garcia, MD, FCCP; and Stephen Jenkinson, MD, FCCP (Link)

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
Medicare oxygen rules (Link)

Fast Fact and Concept #027: Dyspnea at End-of-Life. Weissman, D.E. (Link to HTML) (Link to PDF) 
Ajmal Gilani, MD; Albert Hinn, MD; Peter Lars Jacobson, MD (Link to HTML) (Link to PDF)
Clinical Guidelines
American College of Chest Physicians. Evidence based clinical practice guidelines. (Link)
Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO). Nursing care of dyspnea: the 6th vital sign in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Toronto (ON): Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO); 2005 Mar. (Link)
Patient Information
American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT). Palliative Radiation Therapy. (Link)

Distress References

Prevalence References

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