Receptors, Afferent Inputs and Sensation of Dyspnea

Stimuli

Receptors

Locations

Clinical Conditions

Quality of Dyspnea

Chemoreceptors

Changes in CSF pH Central Chemoreceptors Brain Stem (Medulla) c Air Hunger
Changes in pO2, pCO2 Peripheral Chemoreceptors Carotid and Aortic bodies CHF
Mechanoreceptors
Stretch Lung Inflation Pulmonary Stretch Receptors Pulmonary Alveoli __ Chest Tightness Suffocation
Tactile Stimulation
Air Flow Rate
Bronchial Muscle tone
Pulmonary Irritant Receptors Bronchial Epithelium Asthma
Pulmonary Interstitial & Capillary Pressure C Fibers (J – Juxta capillary Receptors) Interstitium Capillaries CHF, COPD, Pulmonary Vascular Diseases e.g., PE
Mechanical (movement, length & tension change) Muscle Spindles Intercostal Muscles COPD, Asthma, ILD Neuromuscular diseases Increased Sense of Effort
Mechanical (force of contraction) Tendon Organs Diaphragm __
Mechanical (chest wall movement & timing) Proprioceptors Joints and Tendons __

 

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